Places in the Bible Today:

Ai 2


Translated NameAi
Geo Data KML (for Google Earth)
GeoJSON (for GIS applications)

5 Possible Identifications

  1. not a proper name (common noun for ruin): 35% confidence
  2. Khirbet Ai (modern): less than 10% confidence
    1. satellite view of the region around Khirbet AiKhirbet Ai

  3. Medeineh (modern): less than 10% confidence
    1. satellite view of the region around MedeinehMedeineh

  4. in Moab 1 (ancient): less than 10% confidence
    1. panorama of a wadi in Moab 1in Moab 1

  5. another name for Ai 1 (ancient): less than 10% confidence. It may be:
    1. ruins at Et TellEt Tell

    2. satellite view of the region around Khirbet el MaqatirKhirbet el Maqatir

    3. ruins at Khirbet NisiehKhirbet Nisieh

    4. aerial panorama including Khirbet Ibn Baraq, which is left of the leftmost buildingsKhirbet Ibn Baraq

    5. satellite view of the region around Khirbet HaiyanKhirbet Haiyan

Verses (1)

Jer 49:3

Linked Data Identifiers

Logos FactbookAi of Jeremiah (2007)Ai 2
OpenBible.infoa2526f8 (Ai 2)
UBS Names Databaseot ID_2194


  1. Baker Encyclopedia of Bible Places (1995)
  2. ESV Bible Atlas (2010)
  3. Expositor’s Bible Commentary (1984): Jer 49:1-3
  4. Grollenberg, Atlas of the Bible (1957): Ai
  5. HarperCollins Bible Dictionary (2011): Ai
  6. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1979): Ai
  7. New Interpreter’s Bible Dictionary (2009)
  8. Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia (1975): Ai
  9. Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary (2009): Jer 49:3

Confidence Trends over Time

This chart indicates how confidence in the identifications is changing over time. Each dot (connected by a dotted line) reflects the confidence of an identification over the preceding ten years (e.g., the 2009 dot reflects scholarship from 2000 to 2009), and the corresponding solid line reflects a best-fit line for the identification. Confidences that cluster near or below 0% indicate low confidence. Because of the small dataset, it's best to use this chart for general trends; if one identification is trending much higher than the others, for example, then you can probably have higher confidence in the identification. This chart only reflects the sources I consulted (listed above), not an exhaustive review of the literature.

Places with Similar Names

Thumbnail Image Credits

Contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data 2019, Adeeb Atwan, Bukvoed, Biegel, Dvirraz


This page attempts to identify all the possible locations where this biblical place could be. The confidence levels add up to less than 100%, indicating that the modern location is uncertain. It's best to think about the confidences in relative rather than absolute terms. Often they reflect different schools of thought, each confident in their identifications.

The isobands you see on the map (gray areas with dark borders) attempt to give you confidence where a region is. Because many ancient regions aren't precisely defined, I consulted atlases to determine where the biblical region is located and used that data to build the isobands. The smaller isobands reflect more confidence that the given isoband is in the region, while the larger isobands reflect less confidence. Isobands are a kind of contour line that here indicate confidence levels.