Places in the Bible Today:



Translated NameParah
Geo Data KML (for Google Earth)
GeoJSON (for GIS applications)

3 Possible Identifications

  1. Khirbet Ein Fara (modern): 45% confidence
    1. satellite view of the region around Khirbet Ein FaraKhirbet Ein Fara

  2. Khirbet Abu Musarrah (modern): 20% confidence
    1. satellite view of the region around Khirbet Abu MusarrahKhirbet Abu Musarrah

  3. Khirbet Tarafayn (modern): less than 10% confidence
    1. satellite view of the region around Khirbet TarafaynKhirbet Tarafayn

Verses (1)

Josh 18:23

Linked Data Identifiers

Logos FactbookParah (2007)Parah
OpenBible.infoa2ec6b7 (Parah)
UBS Names Databaseot ID_2435


  1. Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary (1992): Parah (place)
  2. Baker Illustrated Bible Dictionary (2013): Parah
  3. Baly, Atlas of the Biblical World (1971): Parah
  4. Carta Bible Atlas, 5th Edition (2011)
  5. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible (2000): Parah
  6. ESV Bible Atlas (2010)
  7. Expositor’s Bible Commentary (1984): Josh 18:23
  8. Grollenberg, Atlas of the Bible (1957): Parah
  9. Hess, Joshua (1996): table 18
  10. Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary (2003)
  11. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1979): Parah
  12. IVP Old Testament Bible Background Commentary (2000): Josh 18:21-28
  13. McKinny, Historical Geography of the Administrative Division of Judah (2014): pages 326, 327
  14. Nelson’s Illustrated Bible Dictionary (2014): Parah
  15. New Interpreter’s Bible Dictionary (2009)
  16. New Unger’s Bible Dictionary (1988): Parah
  17. Reader’s Digest Atlas of the Bible (1981): Parah
  18. Tyndale Bible Dictionary (2001): Parah
  19. Tübingen Bible Atlas (2001): ha-Para
  20. Westminster Historical Atlas to the Bible (1956): Parah
  21. Woudstra, Joshua (1981): 18:21-24
  22. Zondervan Atlas of the Bible (2010)
  23. Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible (2010)

Confidence Trends over Time

This chart indicates how confidence in the identifications is changing over time. Each dot (connected by a dotted line) reflects the confidence of an identification over the preceding ten years (e.g., the 2009 dot reflects scholarship from 2000 to 2009), and the corresponding solid line reflects a best-fit line for the identification. Confidences that cluster near or below 0% indicate low confidence. Because of the small dataset, it's best to use this chart for general trends; if one identification is trending much higher than the others, for example, then you can probably have higher confidence in the identification. This chart only reflects the sources I consulted (listed above), not an exhaustive review of the literature.

Thumbnail Image Credits

Contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data 2019


This page attempts to identify all the possible locations where this biblical place could be. The confidence levels add up to less than 100%, indicating that the modern location is uncertain. It's best to think about the confidences in relative rather than absolute terms. Often they reflect different schools of thought, each confident in their identifications.