Places in the Bible Today:



Translated NamePithom
Geo Data KML (for Google Earth)
GeoJSON (for GIS applications)

3 Possible Identifications

  1. Tell er Retaba (modern): 45% confidence
    1. relief from Tell er RetabaTell er Retaba

  2. Tell el Maskhuta (modern): 20% confidence
    1. panorama of Tell el MaskhutaTell el Maskhuta

  3. another name for Heliopolis (ancient): less than 10% confidence
    1. ruins at Ain ShamsAin Shams

Verses (1)

Exod 1:11

Linked Data Identifiers

Logos FactbookPithom (2007)Pithom
OpenBible.infoa3870fe (Pithom)
UBS Names Databaseot ID_2468


  1. Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary (1992): Pithom (place)
  2. Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land (1990): Pithom
  3. Baly, Atlas of the Biblical World (1971): Pithom
  4. Carta Bible Atlas, 5th Edition (2011)
  5. Cornerstone Biblical Commentary (2008-2012): Exod 1:1-22
  6. Currid, Exodus (2001): page 34
  7. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible (2000): Pithom
  8. ESV Bible Atlas (2010)
  9. Expositor’s Bible Commentary (1984): Exod 1:11
  10. Grollenberg, Atlas of the Bible (1957): Pithom
  11. Hamilton, Exodus: An Exegetical Commentary (2011): 1:11
  12. Hammond Atlas of the Bible Lands (2007): Pithom
  13. HarperCollins Bible Dictionary (2011): Pithom
  14. Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary (2003)
  15. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1979): Pithom
  16. IVP Old Testament Bible Background Commentary (2000): Exod 1:11
  17. Lexham Bible Dictionary (2016): Pithom
  18. Mackay, Exodus (2001): 1:11
  19. Nelson’s Illustrated Bible Dictionary (2014): Pithom
  20. New Bible Dictionary (1996): Pithom
  21. New Interpreter’s Bible Dictionary (2009)
  22. New Unger’s Bible Dictionary (1988)
  23. Oxford Bible Atlas, Fourth Edition (2007)
  24. Reader’s Digest Atlas of the Bible (1981): Pithom
  25. Stuart, Exodus (2006): 1:11
  26. Tyndale Bible Dictionary (2001): Pithom
  27. Westminster Historical Atlas to the Bible (1956): Pithom
  28. Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia (1975): Pithom
  29. Zondervan Atlas of the Bible (2010)
  30. Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible (2010)
  31. Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary (2009): Exod 1:11
  32. Zondervan Pictorial Bible Atlas (1972): page 401

Confidence Trends over Time

This chart indicates how confidence in the identifications is changing over time. Each dot (connected by a dotted line) reflects the confidence of an identification over the preceding ten years (e.g., the 2009 dot reflects scholarship from 2000 to 2009), and the corresponding solid line reflects a best-fit line for the identification. Confidences that cluster near or below 0% indicate low confidence. Because of the small dataset, it's best to use this chart for general trends; if one identification is trending much higher than the others, for example, then you can probably have higher confidence in the identification. This chart only reflects the sources I consulted (listed above), not an exhaustive review of the literature.

Thumbnail Image Credits

Mary Harrsch, Matson Collection, Neithsabes


This page attempts to identify all the possible locations where this biblical place could be. The confidence levels add up to less than 100%, indicating that the modern location is uncertain. It's best to think about the confidences in relative rather than absolute terms. Often they reflect different schools of thought, each confident in their identifications.