Places in the Bible Today:



Translated NameTophel
Geo Data KML (for Google Earth)
GeoJSON (for GIS applications)

2 Possible Identifications

  1. Tafila (modern): 20% confidence
    1. cityscape of TafilaTafila

  2. in the region between Punon and Zered (modern): 15% confidence
    1. panorama of hills in the region between Punon and Zeredin the region between Punon and Zered

Verses (1)

Deut 1:1

Linked Data Identifiers

Logos FactbookTophel (2007)Tophel
OpenBible.infoa7ecf6c (Tophel)
UBS Names Databaseot ID_3078


  1. Aharoni, Land of the Bible (1979): page 443
  2. Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary (1992): Tophel (place)
  3. Baker Illustrated Bible Dictionary (2013): Tophel
  4. Baly, Atlas of the Biblical World (1971): Tophel
  5. Baly, The Geography of the Bible (1974): page 237
  6. Carta Bible Atlas, 5th Edition (2011)
  7. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible (2000): Tophel
  8. Grollenberg, Atlas of the Bible (1957): Tophel
  9. Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary (2003)
  10. Holman Illustrated Guide to Bible Geography (2020): page 288
  11. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1979): Tophel
  12. Nelson’s Illustrated Bible Dictionary (2014): Tophel
  13. New Bible Dictionary (1996): Tophel
  14. New Interpreter’s Bible Dictionary (2009)
  15. Tyndale Bible Dictionary (2001): Tophel
  16. Westminster Historical Atlas to the Bible (1956): Tophel
  17. Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia (1975): Tophel
  18. Zondervan Atlas of the Bible (2010)
  19. Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible (2010)

Confidence Trends over Time

This chart indicates how confidence in the identifications is changing over time. Each dot (connected by a dotted line) reflects the confidence of an identification over the preceding ten years (e.g., the 2009 dot reflects scholarship from 2000 to 2009), and the corresponding solid line reflects a best-fit line for the identification. Confidences that cluster near or below 0% indicate low confidence. Because of the small dataset, it's best to use this chart for general trends; if one identification is trending much higher than the others, for example, then you can probably have higher confidence in the identification. This chart only reflects the sources I consulted (listed above), not an exhaustive review of the literature.

Thumbnail Image Credits

Adeeb Atwan, Adeeb Atwan


This page attempts to identify all the possible locations where this biblical place could be. The confidence levels add up to less than 100%, indicating that the modern location is uncertain. It's best to think about the confidences in relative rather than absolute terms. Often they reflect different schools of thought, each confident in their identifications.