Places in the Bible Today:



Translated NamePharpar
Geo Data KML (for Google Earth)
GeoJSON (for GIS applications)

3 Possible Identifications

  1. Awaj River (modern): 60% confidence
    1. panorama of the Awaj RiverAwaj River

  2. Barbar River (modern): less than 10% confidence
    1. historical closeup of the Barbar RiverBarbar River

  3. Tora River (modern): less than 10% confidence
    1. cityscape along the Tora River, which runs underground hereTora River

Verses (1)

2Kgs 5:12

Linked Data Identifiers

Logos FactbookPharpar (2007)Pharpar
OpenBible.infoa8d054a (Pharpar)
UBS Names Databaseot ID_2451


  1. Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary (1992): Pharpar (place)
  2. Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land (1990): Pharpar
  3. Baker Illustrated Bible Dictionary (2013): Pharpar
  4. Baly, Atlas of the Biblical World (1971): Pharpar
  5. Carta Bible Atlas, 5th Edition (2011)
  6. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible (2000): Pharpar
  7. Hammond Atlas of the Bible Lands (2007): Pharpar
  8. HarperCollins Bible Dictionary (2011): Pharpar
  9. Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary (2003)
  10. Holman Illustrated Guide to Bible Geography (2020): page 35
  11. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1979): Pharpar
  12. IVP Old Testament Bible Background Commentary (2000): 2Kgs 5:12
  13. Nelson’s Illustrated Bible Dictionary (2014): Pharpar
  14. New Bible Atlas (1985): page 45
  15. New Interpreter’s Bible Dictionary (2009)
  16. New Unger’s Bible Dictionary (1988)
  17. Oxford Bible Atlas, Fourth Edition (2007)
  18. Tyndale Bible Dictionary (2001): Pharpar
  19. Tübingen Bible Atlas (2001): Parpar
  20. Westminster Historical Atlas to the Bible (1956): Pharpar
  21. Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia (1975)
  22. Zondervan Atlas of the Bible (2010)
  23. Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible (2010)
  24. Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary (2009): 2Kgs 5:12

Confidence Trends over Time

This chart indicates how confidence in the identifications is changing over time. Each dot (connected by a dotted line) reflects the confidence of an identification over the preceding ten years (e.g., the 2009 dot reflects scholarship from 2000 to 2009), and the corresponding solid line reflects a best-fit line for the identification. Confidences that cluster near or below 0% indicate low confidence. Because of the small dataset, it's best to use this chart for general trends; if one identification is trending much higher than the others (in this case, Awaj River), then you can probably have higher confidence in the identification. This chart only reflects the sources I consulted (listed above), not an exhaustive review of the literature.

Thumbnail Image Credits

AAlsaiad, Matson Collection, Dosseman


This page attempts to identify all the possible locations where this biblical place could be. The confidence levels add up to less than 100%, indicating that the modern location is uncertain. It's best to think about the confidences in relative rather than absolute terms. Often they reflect different schools of thought, each confident in their identifications.