Places in the Bible Today:



Translated NameRephidim
Geo Data KML (for Google Earth)
GeoJSON (for GIS applications)

5 Possible Identifications

  1. along Wadi Rufaiyil (modern): 40% confidence
    1. satellite view of the region around Wadi Rufaiyilalong Wadi Rufaiyil

  2. along Wadi Feiran (modern): 20% confidence
    1. trees along Wadi Feiranalong Wadi Feiran

  3. along Wadi el Sheikh (modern): less than 10% confidence
    1. tree along Wadi el Sheikhalong Wadi el Sheikh

  4. Jabal Huwayti (modern): less than 10% confidence
    1. satellite view of the region around Jabal HuwaytiJabal Huwayti

  5. along Wadi Sudr (modern): less than 10% confidence
    1. satellite view of the region around Wadi Sudralong Wadi Sudr

Verses (5)

  1. Exod 17:1, 17:8, 19:2
  2. Num 33:14, 33:15

Linked Data Identifiers

Logos FactbookRephidim (2007)Rephidim
OpenBible.infoa05ebb7 (Rephidim)
UBS Names Databaseot ID_2724


  1. Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary (1992): Rephidim (place)
  2. Baker Illustrated Bible Dictionary (2013): Rephidim
  3. Baly, Atlas of the Biblical World (1971): Rephidim
  4. Carta Bible Atlas, 5th Edition (2011)
  5. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible (2000): Rephidim
  6. ESV Bible Atlas (2010)
  7. Expositor’s Bible Commentary (1984): Exod 17:1-2
  8. Grollenberg, Atlas of the Bible (1957): Rephidim
  9. Hammond Atlas of the Bible Lands (2007): Rephidim
  10. HarperCollins Bible Dictionary (2011): Rephidim
  11. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1979): Rephidim
  12. IVP Old Testament Bible Background Commentary (2000): Exod 17:1
  13. Lexham Bible Dictionary (2016): Massah
  14. Mackay, Exodus (2001): 17:1-7
  15. Nelson’s Illustrated Bible Dictionary (2014): Rephidim
  16. New Bible Dictionary (1996): Rephidim
  17. New Interpreter’s Bible Dictionary (2009)
  18. Stuart, Exodus (2006): 17:1-2 note 175
  19. Tyndale Bible Dictionary (2001): Rephidim
  20. Tübingen Bible Atlas (2001): Refidim
  21. Westminster Historical Atlas to the Bible (1956): Rephidim
  22. Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia (1975): Rephidim
  23. Zondervan Atlas of the Bible (2010)
  24. Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible (2010)
  25. Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary (2009): Num 33:1-56 Cycle 2
  26. Zondervan Pictorial Bible Atlas (1972): page 66

Confidence Trends over Time

This chart indicates how confidence in the identifications is changing over time. Each dot (connected by a dotted line) reflects the confidence of an identification over the preceding ten years (e.g., the 2009 dot reflects scholarship from 2000 to 2009), and the corresponding solid line reflects a best-fit line for the identification. Confidences that cluster near or below 0% indicate low confidence. Because of the small dataset, it's best to use this chart for general trends; if one identification is trending much higher than the others, for example, then you can probably have higher confidence in the identification. This chart only reflects the sources I consulted (listed above), not an exhaustive review of the literature.

Thumbnail Image Credits

Contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data 2019, Hatem Moushir, youssef_alam


This page attempts to identify all the possible locations where this biblical place could be. The confidence levels add up to less than 100%, indicating that the modern location is uncertain. It's best to think about the confidences in relative rather than absolute terms. Often they reflect different schools of thought, each confident in their identifications.