Places in the Bible Today:



Translated NamesBaal-zephon, Baal Zephon
Geo Data KML (for Google Earth)
GeoJSON (for GIS applications)

6 Possible Identifications

  1. Tell Defenneh (modern): 35% confidence
    1. artifact from Tell DefennehTell Defenneh

  2. Zahr al Qais (modern): less than 10% confidence
    1. satellite view of the region around Zahr al QaisZahr al Qais

  3. another name for Arsinoe (ancient): less than 10% confidence. It may be:
    1. beach at FayidFayid

    2. streetscape of Ismalia in the region between Maghfar and Lake Timsahin the region between Maghfar and Lake Timsah

    3. satellite view of the region around KibritKibrit

    4. satellite view of the region around Tall al QulzumTall al Qulzum

  4. Al Mahamdiyah (modern): less than 10% confidence
    1. satellite view of the region around Al MahamdiyahAl Mahamdiyah

  5. Jabal Ataqah (modern): less than 10% confidence
    1. satellite view of the region around Jabal AtaqahJabal Ataqah

  6. Jabal al Murr (modern): less than 10% confidence
    1. satellite view of the region around Jabal al MurrJabal al Murr

Verses (3)

  1. Exod 14:2, 14:9
  2. Num 33:7

Linked Data Identifiers

Logos FactbookBaal-Zephon (2007)Baal-zephon
OpenBible.infoa22663b (Baal-zephon)
UBS Names Databaseot ID_589
WikipediaBaal-zephon (partial)


  1. Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary (1992): Baal-zephon (place)
  2. Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land (1990): Baal-zephon
  3. Baly, Atlas of the Biblical World (1971): Baal-zephon
  4. Carta Bible Atlas, 5th Edition (2011)
  5. Cornerstone Biblical Commentary (2008-2012): Exod 14:2
  6. Currid, Exodus (2001): 14:1-2
  7. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible (2000): Baal-Zephon
  8. Grollenberg, Atlas of the Bible (1957): Baal-zephon
  9. Hammond Atlas of the Bible Lands (2007): Baal-zephon
  10. HarperCollins Bible Dictionary (2011): Baal-zephon
  11. Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary (2003)
  12. IVP Old Testament Bible Background Commentary (2000): Exod 14:2
  13. Lexham Bible Dictionary (2016): Baal-zephon
  14. New Bible Dictionary (1996): Baal-zephon
  15. Tübingen Bible Atlas (2001): Baal Sefon
  16. Westminster Historical Atlas to the Bible (1956): Baal-zephon
  17. Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia (1975): Pi-hahiroth
  18. Zondervan Atlas of the Bible (2010)
  19. Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible (2010)

Confidence Trends over Time

This chart indicates how confidence in the identifications is changing over time. Each dot (connected by a dotted line) reflects the confidence of an identification over the preceding ten years (e.g., the 2009 dot reflects scholarship from 2000 to 2009), and the corresponding solid line reflects a best-fit line for the identification. Confidences that cluster near or below 0% indicate low confidence. Because of the small dataset, it's best to use this chart for general trends; if one identification is trending much higher than the others, for example, then you can probably have higher confidence in the identification. This chart only reflects the sources I consulted (listed above), not an exhaustive review of the literature.

Thumbnail Image Credits

ArchaiOptix, Contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data 2019, ديفيد عادل وهبة خليل 2, Daniel Csörföly


This page attempts to identify all the possible locations where this biblical place could be. The confidence levels add up to less than 100%, indicating that the modern location is uncertain. It's best to think about the confidences in relative rather than absolute terms. Often they reflect different schools of thought, each confident in their identifications.