Places in the Bible Today:



Translated NameAr
Notespossibly also refers to a region
Geo Data KML (for Google Earth)
GeoJSON (for GIS applications)

5 Possible Identifications

  1. Khirbet al Balua (modern): 40% confidence
    1. ruins at Khirbet al BaluaKhirbet al Balua

  2. Misna (modern): 30% confidence
    1. satellite view of the region around MisnaMisna

  3. Rabba (modern): 15% confidence
    1. ruins at RabbaRabba

  4. Khirbet el Medeineh (modern): less than 10% confidence
    1. satellite view of the region around Khirbet el MedeinehKhirbet el Medeineh

  5. Kerak (modern): less than 10% confidence
    1. castle at KerakKerak

Verses (7)

Gen-Deut (6)
Num 21:15, 21:28
Deut 2:9, 2:10, 2:18, 2:29
Job-Mal (1)
Isa 15:1

Linked Data Identifiers

Logos FactbookAr (2007)Ar
OpenBible.infoa38ad07 (Ar)
UBS Names Databaseot ID_2316


  1. Aharoni, Land of the Bible (1979): page 433
  2. Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary (1992): Ar (place)
  3. Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land (1990): Ar; Ar Moab
  4. Baker Encyclopedia of Bible Places (1995)
  5. Baly, Atlas of the Biblical World (1971): Ar
  6. Carta Bible Atlas, 5th Edition (2011)
  7. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible (2000): Ar
  8. ESV Bible Atlas (2010)
  9. Hammond Atlas of the Bible Lands (2007): Ar
  10. HarperCollins Bible Dictionary (2011): Ar
  11. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1979): Ar
  12. IVP Old Testament Bible Background Commentary (2000): Num 22:36-40
  13. Oxford Bible Atlas, Fourth Edition (2007)
  14. Reader’s Digest Atlas of the Bible (1981): Ar
  15. Westminster Historical Atlas to the Bible (1956): Ar
  16. Zondervan Atlas of the Bible (2010)
  17. Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible (2010)
  18. Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary (2009): Deut 2:9 Moab sidebar

Confidence Trends over Time

This chart indicates how confidence in the identifications is changing over time. Each dot (connected by a dotted line) reflects the confidence of an identification over the preceding ten years (e.g., the 2009 dot reflects scholarship from 2000 to 2009), and the corresponding solid line reflects a best-fit line for the identification. Confidences that cluster near or below 0% indicate low confidence. Because of the small dataset, it's best to use this chart for general trends; if one identification is trending much higher than the others, for example, then you can probably have higher confidence in the identification. This chart only reflects the sources I consulted (listed above), not an exhaustive review of the literature.

Thumbnail Image Credits

Bashar Tabbah, Contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data 2019, Dennis Jarvis, Berthold Werner


This page attempts to identify all the possible locations where this biblical place could be. The confidence levels add up to less than 100%, indicating that the modern location is uncertain. It's best to think about the confidences in relative rather than absolute terms. Often they reflect different schools of thought, each confident in their identifications.