Places in the Bible Today:

Ai 3


Translated NameAi
Geo Data KML (for Google Earth)
GeoJSON (for GIS applications)

2 Possible Identifications

  1. another name for Ai 1 (ancient): 65% confidence. It may be:
    1. ruins at Et TellEt Tell

    2. satellite view of the region around Khirbet el MaqatirKhirbet el Maqatir

    3. ruins at Khirbet NisiehKhirbet Nisieh

    4. aerial panorama including Khirbet Ibn Baraq, which is left of the leftmost buildingsKhirbet Ibn Baraq

    5. satellite view of the region around Khirbet HaiyanKhirbet Haiyan

  2. Khirbet Haiyan (modern): less than 10% confidence
    1. satellite view of the region around Khirbet HaiyanKhirbet Haiyan

Verses (2)

  1. Ezra 2:28
  2. Neh 7:32

Linked Data Identifiers

SourceIdentifier (2007)Ai 1
OpenBible.infoa63c70b (Ai 3)
UBS Names Databaseot ID_2194


  1. Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary (1992)
  2. Baker Encyclopedia of Bible Places (1995)
  3. Grollenberg, Atlas of the Bible (1957): Ai
  4. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1979)
  5. IVP Old Testament Bible Background Commentary (2000): Jer 49:3
  6. Nelson’s Illustrated Bible Dictionary (2014): Ai
  7. New Interpreter’s Bible Dictionary (2009)
  8. Reader’s Digest Atlas of the Bible (1981): Ai
  9. Tyndale Bible Dictionary (2001)
  10. Tübingen Bible Atlas (2001): ha-Ai
  11. Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia (1975)
  12. Zondervan Atlas of the Bible (2010)

Confidence Trends over Time

This chart indicates how confidence in the identifications is changing over time. Each dot (connected by a dotted line) reflects the confidence of an identification over the preceding ten years (e.g., the 2009 dot reflects scholarship from 2000 to 2009), and the corresponding solid line reflects a best-fit line for the identification. Confidences that cluster near or below 0% indicate low confidence. Because of the small dataset, it's best to use this chart for general trends; if one identification is trending much higher than the others (in this case, another name for Ai 1), then you can probably have higher confidence in the identification. This chart only reflects the sources I consulted (listed above), not an exhaustive review of the literature.

Places with Similar Names

Thumbnail Image Credits

Bukvoed, Contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data 2019, Biegel, Dvirraz


This page attempts to identify all the possible locations where this biblical place could be. The confidence levels add up to less than 100%, indicating that the modern location is uncertain. It's best to think about the confidences in relative rather than absolute terms. Often they reflect different schools of thought, each confident in their identifications.