Places in the Bible Today:



Translated NamesIsh-Tob, Ish-tob, Tob
Geo Data KML (for Google Earth)
GeoJSON (for GIS applications)

2 Possible Identifications

  1. Et Tayibeh (modern): 65% confidence
    1. satellite view of the region around Et TayibehEt Tayibeh

  2. Iraq al Amir (modern): less than 10% confidence
    1. building at Iraq al AmirIraq al Amir

Verses (4)

Josh-Ruth (2)
Judg 11:3, 11:5
1Sam-Esth (2)
2Sam 10:6, 10:8

Linked Data Identifiers

Logos FactbookTob (2007)Tob
OpenBible.infoaaff3e1 (Tob)
UBS Names Databaseot ID_1202


  1. Aharoni, Land of the Bible (1979): page 443
  2. Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary (1992): Tob (place)
  3. Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land (1990): Tob (Land of)
  4. Baker Illustrated Bible Dictionary (2013): Tob
  5. Baly, Atlas of the Biblical World (1971): Tob
  6. Carta Bible Atlas, 5th Edition (2011)
  7. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible (2000): Tob
  8. Expositor’s Bible Commentary (1984): Judg 11:1-3; 2Sam 10:6-14
  9. HarperCollins Bible Dictionary (2011): Tob
  10. Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary (2003)
  11. Holman Illustrated Guide to Bible Geography (2020): page 257
  12. IVP Old Testament Bible Background Commentary (2000): 2Sam 10:6
  13. Monson, Regions on the Run (2009): map 2
  14. New Bible Dictionary (1996): Tob
  15. New Interpreter’s Bible Dictionary (2009)
  16. Oxford Bible Atlas, Fourth Edition (2007)
  17. Westminster Historical Atlas to the Bible (1956): Tob
  18. Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia (1975): Tob
  19. Zondervan Atlas of the Bible (2010)
  20. Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible (2010)
  21. Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary (2009): 2Sam 10:6

Confidence Trends over Time

This chart indicates how confidence in the identifications is changing over time. Each dot (connected by a dotted line) reflects the confidence of an identification over the preceding ten years (e.g., the 2009 dot reflects scholarship from 2000 to 2009), and the corresponding solid line reflects a best-fit line for the identification. Confidences that cluster near or below 0% indicate low confidence. Because of the small dataset, it's best to use this chart for general trends; if one identification is trending much higher than the others (in this case, Et Tayibeh), then you can probably have higher confidence in the identification. This chart only reflects the sources I consulted (listed above), not an exhaustive review of the literature.

Thumbnail Image Credits

Contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data 2019, Makeandtoss


This page attempts to identify all the possible locations where this biblical place could be. The confidence levels add up to less than 100%, indicating that the modern location is uncertain. It's best to think about the confidences in relative rather than absolute terms. Often they reflect different schools of thought, each confident in their identifications.