Places in the Bible Today:



Translated NameHormah
Geo Data KML (for Google Earth)
GeoJSON (for GIS applications)

7 Possible Identifications

  1. Tel Masos (modern): 45% confidence
    1. satellite view of the region around Tel MasosTel Masos

  2. Tel Halif (modern): 15% confidence
    1. panorama of Tel HalifTel Halif

  3. Tel Malhata (modern): less than 10% confidence
    1. artifact from Tel MalhataTel Malhata

  4. Tell esh Sharia (modern): less than 10% confidence
    1. panorama of Tell esh ShariaTell esh Sharia

  5. Tel Ira (modern): less than 10% confidence
    1. satellite view of the region around Tel IraTel Ira

  6. Tell Beit Mirsim (modern): less than 10% confidence
    1. artifact from Tell Beit MirsimTell Beit Mirsim

  7. Shivta (modern): less than 10% confidence
    1. panorama of ruins at ShivtaShivta

Verses (9)

Gen-Deut (3)
Num 14:45, 21:3
Deut 1:44
Josh-Ruth (4)
Josh 12:14, 15:30, 19:4
Judg 1:17
1Sam-Esth (2)
1Sam 30:30
1Chr 4:30

Linked Data Identifiers

Logos FactbookHormah (2007)Hormah
OpenBible.infoada25df (Hormah)
UBS Names Databaseot ID_1161


  1. Aharoni, Land of the Bible (1979): page 436
  2. Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary (1992): Hormah (place)
  3. Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land (1990): Hormah
  4. Baker Illustrated Bible Dictionary (2013): Hormah
  5. Baly, Atlas of the Biblical World (1971): Hormah
  6. Baly, The Geography of the Bible (1974): page 183
  7. Carta Bible Atlas, 5th Edition (2011)
  8. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible (2000): Hormah
  9. ESV Bible Atlas (2010)
  10. Expositor’s Bible Commentary (1984): Josh 12:14; Josh 15:30; 1Sam 30:26-31
  11. Gordon, I and II Samuel (1986): 1Sam 30:29
  12. Grollenberg, Atlas of the Bible (1957): Hormah
  13. Hammond Atlas of the Bible Lands (2007): Hormah
  14. HarperCollins Concise Atlas of the Bible (1991)
  15. Hess, Joshua (1996): table 11
  16. Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary (2003)
  17. Holman Illustrated Guide to Bible Geography (2020): page 103
  18. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1979): Hormah
  19. IVP Old Testament Bible Background Commentary (2000): Josh 12:14; Num 14:45; Num 21:3; Josh 12:14; 1Sam 30:27-31
  20. McKinny, Historical Geography of the Administrative Division of Judah (2014): page 101
  21. New Bible Atlas (1985): Hormah
  22. New Bible Dictionary (1996): Hormah
  23. Oxford Bible Atlas, Fourth Edition (2007)
  24. Reader’s Digest Atlas of the Bible (1981): Hormah
  25. Rogerson, New Atlas of the Bible (1985): page 114
  26. Schlegel, Satellite Bible Atlas (2016): Hormah
  27. Woudstra, Joshua (1981): 15:30
  28. Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia (1975): Hormah
  29. Zondervan Atlas of the Bible (2010)
  30. Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible (2010)
  31. Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary (2009): Deut 1:44; Num 14:45; Num 21:1

Confidence Trends over Time

This chart indicates how confidence in the identifications is changing over time. Each dot (connected by a dotted line) reflects the confidence of an identification over the preceding ten years (e.g., the 2009 dot reflects scholarship from 2000 to 2009), and the corresponding solid line reflects a best-fit line for the identification. Confidences that cluster near or below 0% indicate low confidence. Because of the small dataset, it's best to use this chart for general trends; if one identification is trending much higher than the others (in this case, Tel Masos), then you can probably have higher confidence in the identification. This chart only reflects the sources I consulted (listed above), not an exhaustive review of the literature.

Thumbnail Image Credits

Contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data 2019, Danny Gershoni, Gary Todd, Danny Gershoni, Hanay, Mujaddara


This page attempts to identify all the possible locations where this biblical place could be. The confidence levels add up to less than 100%, indicating that the modern location is uncertain. It's best to think about the confidences in relative rather than absolute terms. Often they reflect different schools of thought, each confident in their identifications.