Places in the Bible Today:



Translated NamesEn-rogel, En Rogel
Geo Data KML (for Google Earth)
GeoJSON (for GIS applications)

3 Possible Identifications

  1. Bir Ayub (modern): 80% confidence
    1. building at Bir AyubBir Ayub

  2. Ain el Madauwerah (modern): less than 10% confidence
    1. cityscape looking east including Ain el Madauwerah, which is not visible at center rightAin el Madauwerah

  3. Gihon Spring (modern): less than 10% confidence
    1. water flowing from the Gihon SpringGihon Spring

Verses (6)

Josh-Ruth (3)
Josh 15:7, 18:16, 18:17
1Sam-Esth (3)
2Sam 17:17, 17:18
1Kgs 1:9

Linked Data Identifiers

Logos FactbookEn-rogel (2007)En-rogel
OpenBible.infoaf9cfc9 (En-rogel)
UBS Names Databaseot ID_2212


  1. Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary (1992): En-rogel (place)
  2. Baly, Atlas of the Biblical World (1971): Jerusalem
  3. Carta Bible Atlas, 5th Edition (2011)
  4. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible (2000): En-Rogel
  5. ESV Bible Atlas (2010)
  6. Expositor’s Bible Commentary (1984): Josh 15:7; 2Sam 17:17-22; 1Kgs 1:8-10
  7. Fensham, Ezra and Nehemiah (1982): Neh 2:13
  8. Gordon, I and II Samuel (1986): 2Sam 17:17
  9. Grollenberg, Atlas of the Bible (1957): En-rogel
  10. Hess, Joshua (1996): table 10
  11. Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary (2003)
  12. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1979): En-Rogel
  13. IVP Old Testament Bible Background Commentary (2000): 2Sam 17:17
  14. Lexham Bible Dictionary (2016): En-rogel
  15. McKinny, Historical Geography of the Administrative Division of Judah (2014): page 62
  16. Nelson’s Illustrated Bible Dictionary (2014): En Rogel
  17. New Bible Dictionary (1996): En-rogel
  18. New Interpreter’s Bible Dictionary (2009)
  19. New Unger’s Bible Dictionary (1988)
  20. Reader’s Digest Atlas of the Bible (1981): En-rogel
  21. Tyndale Bible Dictionary (2001): En-rogel
  22. Tübingen Bible Atlas (2001): En Rogel
  23. Westminster Historical Atlas to the Bible (1956): En-rogel
  24. Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia (1975): En-rogel
  25. Zondervan Atlas of the Bible (2010)
  26. Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible (2010)
  27. Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary (2009): Josh 15:5; 2Sam 17:17

Confidence Trends over Time

This chart indicates how confidence in the identifications is changing over time. Each dot (connected by a dotted line) reflects the confidence of an identification over the preceding ten years (e.g., the 2009 dot reflects scholarship from 2000 to 2009), and the corresponding solid line reflects a best-fit line for the identification. Confidences that cluster near or below 0% indicate low confidence. Because of the small dataset, it's best to use this chart for general trends; if one identification is trending much higher than the others (in this case, Bir Ayub), then you can probably have higher confidence in the identification. This chart only reflects the sources I consulted (listed above), not an exhaustive review of the literature.

Thumbnail Image Credits

kfar hatemanim, עוזי ו., Deror_avi


This page attempts to identify all the possible locations where this biblical place could be. The confidence levels add up to less than 100%, indicating that the modern location is uncertain. It's best to think about the confidences in relative rather than absolute terms. Often they reflect different schools of thought, each confident in their identifications.