Places in the Bible Today:

Arad 1


Translated NameArad
Notesmay be a name for a region rather than a settlement
Geo Data KML (for Google Earth)
GeoJSON (for GIS applications)

3 Possible Identifications

  1. Tel Arad (modern): 40% confidence
    1. ruins at Tel AradTel Arad

  2. Tel Malhata (modern): 25% confidence
    1. artifact from Tel MalhataTel Malhata

  3. Tel Masos (modern): less than 10% confidence
    1. satellite view of the region around Tel MasosTel Masos

Verses (3)

Gen-Deut (2)
Num 21:1, 33:40
Josh-Ruth (1)
Josh 12:14

Linked Data Identifiers

Logos FactbookArad (town) (2007)Arad
OpenBible.infoabc358b (Arad 1)
UBS Names Databaseot ID_2323
WikipediaTel Arad (partial)


  1. Aharoni, Land of the Bible (1979): page 430
  2. Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary (1992)
  3. Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land (1990)
  4. Baker Illustrated Bible Dictionary (2013)
  5. Baly, Atlas of the Biblical World (1971): Arad
  6. Baly, The Geography of the Bible (1974): page 184
  7. Carta Bible Atlas, 5th Edition (2011)
  8. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible (2000)
  9. ESV Bible Atlas (2010)
  10. Expositor’s Bible Commentary (1984): Josh 12:14; Num 21:1
  11. Grollenberg, Atlas of the Bible (1957): Arad
  12. Hammond Atlas of the Bible Lands (2007): Arad
  13. HarperCollins Bible Dictionary (2011)
  14. HarperCollins Concise Atlas of the Bible (1991)
  15. Hess, Joshua (1996): table 4
  16. Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary (2003)
  17. Holman Illustrated Guide to Bible Geography (2020): page 103
  18. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1979)
  19. IVP Old Testament Bible Background Commentary (2000): Josh 12:14; Num 21:1-3
  20. Lexham Bible Dictionary (2016)
  21. Monson, Regions on the Run (2009): map 4
  22. Nelson’s Illustrated Bible Dictionary (2014): Arad
  23. New Bible Atlas (1985): Arad
  24. New Bible Dictionary (1996)
  25. New Interpreter’s Bible Dictionary (2009)
  26. New Unger’s Bible Dictionary (1988)
  27. Oxford Bible Atlas, Fourth Edition (2007)
  28. Reader’s Digest Atlas of the Bible (1981): Arad
  29. Rogerson, New Atlas of the Bible (1985): page 114
  30. Tyndale Bible Dictionary (2001)
  31. Westminster Historical Atlas to the Bible (1956): Arad
  32. Woudstra, Joshua (1981): 12:9-24
  33. Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia (1975)
  34. Zondervan Atlas of the Bible (2010)
  35. Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible (2010)
  36. Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary (2009): Num 21:1

Confidence Trends over Time

This chart indicates how confidence in the identifications is changing over time. Each dot (connected by a dotted line) reflects the confidence of an identification over the preceding ten years (e.g., the 2009 dot reflects scholarship from 2000 to 2009), and the corresponding solid line reflects a best-fit line for the identification. Confidences that cluster near or below 0% indicate low confidence. Because of the small dataset, it's best to use this chart for general trends; if one identification is trending much higher than the others, for example, then you can probably have higher confidence in the identification. This chart only reflects the sources I consulted (listed above), not an exhaustive review of the literature.

Places with Similar Names

Thumbnail Image Credits

אריאל מנור, Gary Todd, Contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data 2019


This page attempts to identify all the possible locations where this biblical place could be. The confidence levels add up to less than 100%, indicating that the modern location is uncertain. It's best to think about the confidences in relative rather than absolute terms. Often they reflect different schools of thought, each confident in their identifications.