Places in the Bible Today:



Translated NamesAzal, Azel
Typesriver or settlement
Geo Data KML (for Google Earth)
GeoJSON (for GIS applications)

4 Possible Identifications

  1. Nahal Azal (modern): 25% confidence
    1. panorama of Nahal AzalNahal Azal

  2. not a proper name (common noun for "side"): 20% confidence
  3. another name for Aiath (ancient): less than 10% confidence. It may be:
    1. ruins at Et TellEt Tell

    2. satellite view of the region around Khirbet el MaqatirKhirbet el Maqatir

    3. ruins at Khirbet NisiehKhirbet Nisieh

    4. satellite view of the region around Khirbet HaiyanKhirbet Haiyan

    5. aerial panorama including Khirbet Ibn Baraq, which is left of the leftmost buildingsKhirbet Ibn Baraq

  4. another name for Beth-ezel (ancient): less than 10% confidence
    1. cityscape of Deir al Asal al FauqaDeir al Asal al Fauqa

Verses (1)

Zech 14:5

Linked Data Identifiers

Logos FactbookAzal (2007)Azal
OpenBible.infoad041dd (Azal)
UBS Names Databaseot ID_333


  1. Baker Illustrated Bible Dictionary (2013): Azel
  2. Baly, Atlas of the Biblical World (1971): Azal
  3. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible (2000): Azal
  4. Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary (2003)
  5. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1979): Azal
  6. New Unger’s Bible Dictionary (1988): Azel
  7. Revised Expositor’s Bible Commentary (2012): Zech 14:3-5
  8. Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia (1975): Azal
  9. Zondervan Atlas of the Bible (2010): Azel
  10. Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible (2010): Azal
  11. Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary (2009): Zech 14:5

Confidence Trends over Time

This chart indicates how confidence in the identifications is changing over time. Each dot (connected by a dotted line) reflects the confidence of an identification over the preceding ten years (e.g., the 2009 dot reflects scholarship from 2000 to 2009), and the corresponding solid line reflects a best-fit line for the identification. Confidences that cluster near or below 0% indicate low confidence. Because of the small dataset, it's best to use this chart for general trends; if one identification is trending much higher than the others, for example, then you can probably have higher confidence in the identification. This chart only reflects the sources I consulted (listed above), not an exhaustive review of the literature.

Thumbnail Image Credits

Chadica, Bukvoed, Contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data 2019, Biegel, Dvirraz, עדירל


This page attempts to identify all the possible locations where this biblical place could be. The confidence levels add up to less than 100%, indicating that the modern location is uncertain. It's best to think about the confidences in relative rather than absolute terms. Often they reflect different schools of thought, each confident in their identifications.