Places in the Bible Today:

Etam 1


Translated NameEtam
NotesRock of Etam
Geo Data KML (for Google Earth)
GeoJSON (for GIS applications)

3 Possible Identifications

  1. Arak Ismain (modern): 85% confidence
    1. cave at Arak IsmainArak Ismain

  2. Bayt Itab (modern): less than 10% confidence
    1. ruins at Bayt ItabBayt Itab

  3. another name for Etam 3 (ancient): less than 10% confidence
    1. satellite view of the region around Khirbet el KhokhKhirbet el Khokh

Verses (2)

Judg 15:8, 15:11

Linked Data Identifiers

Logos FactbookRock of Etam (2007)Etam 1
OpenBible.infoae05348 (Etam 1)
UBS Names Databaseot ID_2199


  1. Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary (1992): Etam, Rock of (place)
  2. Baker Illustrated Bible Dictionary (2013)
  3. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1979): Etam
  4. IVP Old Testament Bible Background Commentary (2000): Judg 15:8
  5. McKinny, Historical Geography of the Administrative Division of Judah (2014): page 110
  6. New Unger’s Bible Dictionary (1988)
  7. Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia (1975)
  8. Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible (2010)
  9. Zondervan Pictorial Bible Atlas (1972): page 84

Confidence Trends over Time

This chart indicates how confidence in the identifications is changing over time. Each dot (connected by a dotted line) reflects the confidence of an identification over the preceding ten years (e.g., the 2009 dot reflects scholarship from 2000 to 2009), and the corresponding solid line reflects a best-fit line for the identification. Confidences that cluster near or below 0% indicate low confidence. Because of the small dataset, it's best to use this chart for general trends; if one identification is trending much higher than the others (in this case, Arak Ismain), then you can probably have higher confidence in the identification. This chart only reflects the sources I consulted (listed above), not an exhaustive review of the literature.

Places with Similar Names

Thumbnail Image Credits

savion29, Danny Lyulev, Contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data 2019


This page attempts to identify all the possible locations where this biblical place could be. The confidence levels add up to less than 100%, indicating that the modern location is uncertain. It's best to think about the confidences in relative rather than absolute terms. Often they reflect different schools of thought, each confident in their identifications.